Embajada de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela en El Líbano

سفارة الجمهورية البوليفارية الفنزويلية في لبنان




Political History.









Venezuela and Simon Bolivar: Leaders of the South American Independence.

Venezuela’s independence movement was among the first in Latin America and the stronger in the South American Continent.

The desire for political freedom in the country first started among the country’s creole, or native-born, landowners and gentry who particularly resented the meddling of the Spanish government in local affairs.

The overthrow of the Spanish monarch by Napoleon in 1806 gave creole patriots the excuse they needed to break with Madrid. In 1806, Francisco de Miranda, a Venezuelan patriot, tried to land a small fleet at Ocumare de la Costa. He was driven back by the Spanish, but the cacao boom and a tradition of rebellion against the mercantilist policies of the Bourbon dynasty sparked the fight for independence, a struggle which required several years of brutal fighting.

When Miranda was captured in 1812 and taken to Spain, the  leadership of the movement passed to the young, charismatic Simón Bolívar, who had been forced into exile with the rebel forces. Born in Caracas to an aristocratic family and orphaned at an early age, Bolívar was destined to become one history’s great military leaders and political thinkers.

After many setbacks, in which the llaneros, or horsemen of the plains, were recruited by Bolívar, decisive Battle of Carabobo was fought on 24 June 1821, and resulted in the total defeat of the Spanish. The last Spanish forces were evicted from Venezuela following the 1823 defeat of royalist forces near Maracaibo.

Independence brought Bolívar’s fondest dreams to fruition. Bolívar went on to liberate Colombia, Ecuador and Perú, before founding Bolivia and then joining the countries under the name of Gran Colombia. By 1830, the union was disintegrating. On May 6, 1830, Venezuela seceded and named its revolutionary hero José Antonio Páez, as its first President. Bolívar never saw the death of his creation; he died at the age of 47 in Santa Marta, Colombia, outlawed by separatist and under a cloud of mounting unpopularity.

Venezuela: Its Strong Democracy

Venezuela has a very stable democratic system of government, now supported by a new and modern National Constitution passed by means of a popular referendum hold in 1999. The government’s system of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is divide as follows:

Executive Power:

The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is a Presidential democracy of 22 states, one Metropolitan District and 11 federally controlled island groups with 72 individual islands near the Venezuelan coastline which are Federal Dependencies.

The President is the Head of State and the government, and the Commander in Chief of the National Armed Forces. The President is directly elected by universal suffrage for a six year term, with the possibility of being re-elected, immediately, for one more period. The President appoints and presides over a council of ministers.

The new Constitution establishes the figure of the Executive Vice-President, who is appointed by the President and is a direct collaborator in the design of the national policy.

Legislative Power:

The new Constitution establishes a unicameral National Assembly.

The number of seats is determined by a "proportional representation", formula which takes into account the national population figure and establish the number of deputies in each electoral district. Also, each Federal entity must elect three Deputies. The aboriginal people elect also three Deputies according the established in the Electoral Law. The National Assembly have 15 Permanent Commissions, referred to the national activity sectors.

The National Assembly normally hold two sessions, the first from 5th January to the 15th of August, and the second from the 15th of September to the 15th of December.

Judicial Power:

Judicial Power is vested in the Supreme Tribunal of Justice which is organized in constitutional, political-administrative; electoral, civil cassation; penal cassation and social cassation, and various local courts. The Judges of the Supreme Tribunal of Justice are elected for a twelve year only period. The Supreme Tribunal of Justice is the final court of appeal and has the authority to rule on the constitutionality of executive decrees and congressional acts.

Citizen Power:

Is exercised through the Republican Moral Council, which is comprised by the People's Defender; the Public Prosecutor and the General Accountant, and have the duty to observe, prevent, investigate and penalize acts against the public ethic and administrative moral and oversee the legality of the use of the public funds.

Electoral Power:

Is exercised by the National Electoral Council; the National Electoral Board; the Civil and Electoral Register Commission and the Financial and Political Participation Commission; and have the duty to regulate electoral laws; declare elections process void and the organization, administration, management and protection of all acts related to the election of popular representation posts.

Local and Regional Government:

The States are divided in Districts. At the level of the states, the executive power is vested in the Governors who are elected for a period of four years by direct and universal suffrage and can be re-elected for a consecutive period.

The state legislative power is vested in the states Legislative Councils, integrated by a number between 7 and 15 members, elected every four years by direct and universal suffrage being able to be re-elected only for two periods. The local government is composed of the Major, the Municipal Council, and the Parishes. At the District level, the Major, as well as the members of the Municipal Council, are elected by uninominal votes. The Major is elected for a period of four years, and can be re-elected for one consecutive period.

The Electoral System:

Voting is a right and a duty in Venezuela. Citizens are eligible to vote once they reach 18 years of age; there are no restrictions regarding sex, race, property ownership, physical handicap or literacy. Elections are organized, directed and supervised by the National Electoral Council (CNE), a body composed of 5 members elected by the National Assembly for a period of seven years.

Political Parties:

The Venezuelan Constitution guarantees the freedom to create political parties when states that "competing political parties have the right to guide national policy through democratic methods". A political party can be created by submitting either a presidential candidate or a list of legislative candidates to the CNE for its approval. The Law of Political Parties states that a party must obtain 1% of the national vote to retain its legal status.



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